Accessibility is about creating learning resources and activities in a way that does not disadvantage a student’s learning or introduce a barrier to participation because of a disability. Accessibility is a legal requirement and inclusivity forms part of the University’s Statement on Teaching Performance Expectations. Watch the introductory video below for a brief overview or the webinar recording for examples of practice.
There is detailed guidance for creating accessible learning activities and resources throughout the York Technology-Enhanced Learning Handbook. In particular in Section 2. Module site design, structure and layout and Section 3. Creating resources provide fundamental practices for developing module sites and creating learning materials.
We have a Guide for users of Apple VoiceOver [Google Doc] to assist use of the Yorkshare VLE .
Examples of accessible practice
- Advance provision of lecture and seminar materials via the VLE allows all students to prepare and is essential for students with some disabilities.
- Online submission of work eliminates the need for students to travel to hand in.
- Digitised texts can be more accessible to visually impaired students.
- Text or aural equivalents for visually conveyed content.
- Captions on videos and transcripts for audio recordings which are key to the learning aims of the course.
- Asynchronous learning activities enable flexible participation and students to control the pace of learning.
- Lecture recordings and video summaries for students with impairments affecting note-taking.
- Online spaces to provide contributions from students who are unable to contribute to class-based discussions.
- Clear and consistent site structures.
This video provides an introduction to key accessibility concepts.
You can also watch the full recorded webinar which explores:
- Document and online content structure with Heading styles.
- Using images.
- Alternatives to text.
- Saving Word and PowerPoint files as PDF.
- Using Prezi.
- Alternatives to multimedia.
The following is a summary of some of the key guidelines.
Use Heading styles to structure documents
Do not use the font type, colour or size settings in Word, Google Docs or the Yorkshare text editor. Instead, use Styles in Word or Google Docs and the Format drop down in the Yorkshare text editor. The default style in the Yorkshare text editor is ‘paragraph’. This allows users to adjust the font, colour and size using assistive technology according to their own preference or needs.
To break down and provide structure to a large document in Word or Google Docs, or to add sub-headings in Yorkshare content Items, use Heading styles.
Headings also provide structure to a page, and in the case of Word documents and Google Docs can be used to automatically create tables of contents. When Word documents are saved as accessible PDFs, the headings provide navigational elements for visually impaired or blind users using screen-reading (text-to-speech) software.
Font type and size
When creating Google Docs or Word documents, in particular if saving as PDF or printing, use a sans-serif font such as Arial, Calibri or Helvetica, with font size 12pt or greater. Include line-spacing and double line breaks between sections of the document. Ensure any diagrams, tables and charts have labels and spacing around them to make them distinct from surrounding text.
Avoid large blocks of text
Large blocks of text are difficult to scan without the spaces created by short paragraphs, and reading on-screen takes longer for the majority of users. These issues are compounded for those with visual impairments or reading difficulties.
Use left-justified text
Left-justified text (the normal alignment setting) creates jagged edges on the right side of the document which makes it easier for some students to follow line-by-line. Text which expands to both the left and right edge of the page (full justification) creates “rivers” of white space down through the text which diverts the eye, making on-screen scanning and reading even more difficult. Similarly, right or centrally aligned text is difficult to follow line-by-line.
Bold, italic and underlining
Use bold to emphasise words and phrases. Blocks of italic text should not be used as this can appear ‘wobbly’ to some individuals and therefore difficult to read. Underlining can be confused with clickable links on webpages and downloaded documents, so avoid using this also.
Avoid using BLOCK CAPS
Many users find block capitals difficult to read. Being able to identify sentence beginnings and endings strongly aids comprehension. Online, capitalisation is also considered to represent the textual equivalent of shouting and may therefore be interpreted as aggressive or comical!
Do not use ‘click here’ for web links
To aid speedy navigation, screen reader software can read out every link on the page in order, omitting the surrounding text. (This mimics the way sighted users “scan” the page for links, headings and other content). Using only “here” or “click here” as the text made into a web link can be confusing, as they are meaningless out of context. Instead, make the link text descriptive. For example: “Lecture 1: Introduction (Slides)” rather than “Slides”.
Make links distinct
It is important to ensure all links on a page use different text unless they point to the same location. Using the same text for different links could cause unnecessary confusion.
Use a solid background colour
Users with a low visual capability and students with dyslexia have difficulty reading text with textures, patterns or images as backgrounds. Vibrant images may also be distracting on a page.
Ensure a good level of contrast between background and text
If you avoid using the font colour settings, this will allow users to customise the appearance of the text. Some individuals can only read black on white or black on yellow for example.
In certain cases you may wish to use colours to distinguish key parts of a resource. In this case, it is worth printing out in black and white to check that there is adequate contrast between the text and background.
Take into account users with colour vision impairments
Some individuals have difficulty distinguishing the colours red/green, yellow/blue (colloquially known as “colour blindness”). Be sure not to use these colours on top of or next to each other.
Do not rely on colours alone to convey meaning
Individuals using screen readers will not be able to ‘read’ colours, and nor with those with colour vision impairments. These users will be unable to progress if instructions require them to “Click the Green Button”, where colour is the only thing that distinguishes this button from other elements on the page.
Provide a text alternative where necessary
Images should described with text for users with visual impairments using the ‘alt’ attribute (known as’Image Description’ in the Yorkshare VLE). The nature of the description should allow a blind or visually impaired student to learn from the image in the same way as a sighted student. This idea is discussed further in the webinar recording (11m 22s).
When images are of aesthetic value only and do not form part of the information the page is conveying, an empty alt tag should be used.
Provide a linked textual description for graphs and charts
The alt attribute is read out by screen-reading software and including too much description may be a distraction within a wider context of a document. More complex images may benefit from a separate page or paragraph of description. The alt tag can in these cases be used to direct readers to the section or link where they will find further information. Examples of approaches for charts and graphs are available here:
- Making charts and graphs accessible [Penn State University]
Avoid moving or flashing images
Users of screen magnification software may find difficulty in reading images (and text) if the information is moving around or flashing.
Check accessibility support and provide alternatives where necessary
Some websites you link to may require particular interactions, for example functions dependent on use of a mouse. Others may use Flash-based plug-ins for more fancy content. It is important to check that the content you want to embed will be accessible. If you are unsure, provide a text-based equivalent.
The University’s Disability Services provides additional advice on other learning and teaching considerations for a range of disabilities. Please do consult their guidance and any Student Support Plans for individual students for further advice.